Estimate (IRE) – Gold Cup

 Breeding: 5 b m Monsun (GER) – Ebaziya (IRE) (Darshaan)

Breeder: H H The Aga Khan’s Studs S C

Born: April 4, 2009

Owner: The Queen

Trainer: Sir Michael Stoute

Jockey: Ryan Moore

Form: 7/1133/117-

* Aiming for a second victory in the Group One Gold Cup and third consecutive victory at Royal Ascot.

* Provided a highlight of The Queen’s time in racing when winning the Gold Cup last year and gave her owner a 22nd Royal Ascot success.

* Only appeared once subsequently when seventh, beaten three lengths, in Group Three QIPCO British Champions Long Distance Cup over two miles at Ascot on QIPCO British Champions Day, October 19, 2013.

* Had previously captured the Group Three Longines Sagaro Stakes at Ascot in May, 2013.

* A half-sister to 1999 Gold Cup winner Enzeli and to 1997 Group One Irish Oaks heroine Ebadiyla, she was bred by the Aga Khan and given to Her Majesty The Queen as a gift.

* The highlight of four three-year-old outings was when winning the Queen’s Vase over two miles at Royal Ascot.

Starts: 8; Wins: 4; 2nd: 0; 3rd: 2; Win & Place Prize Money: £285,268

 The Queen                         

Born: April 21, 1926 Background: Celebrated her 88th birthday in April. Her enthusiasm for racing was fired by her parents as a child. She was 23 when enjoying a first runner, Astrakhan, a present from the Aga Khan, who was second at Ascot in October, 1949. Her first winner came over fences when Monaveen (shared with the Queen Mother) won at Fontwell the same month. Her first Flat winner was Astrakhan at Hurst Park in 1950. The first victory following her accession to the throne came with Choir Boy at Newmarket in May, 1952 (although as court was in mourning for her late father, the horse ran in Duke of Norfolk’s name). British Classic wins (5): 1,000 Guineas (1974 Highclere), 2,000 Guineas (1958 Pall Mall), Oaks (1957 Carrozza, 1977 Dunfermline), St Leger (1977 Dunfermline). Other major wins include: Prix de Diane (1974 Highclere), King George VI & Queen Elizabeth Stakes (1954 Aureole), Coronation Cup (1954 Aureole), Yorkshire Oaks (1957 Almeria), Grand Prix de Saint-Cloud (1968 Hopeful Venture). Her 22 Royal Ascot winners (up to the start of the third day this year) include Above Suspicion (1959 St James’s Palace Stakes), Aiming High (1961 Coronation Stakes) and Estimate (2012 Queen’s Vase, 2013 Gold Cup).Trainers: Has around 25 Flat horses in training split between Sir Michael Stoute, Richard Hannon, Andrew Balding, Michael Bell, Roger Charlton, William Haggas and Gai Waterhouse in Australia. Her jump horses are trained by Nicky Henderson. Other details: Inherited the Royal Studs in 1952, now incorporating Sandringham Stud and Friar Marcus Stud (on the Sandringham Estate in Norfolk) and Polhampton Lodge Stud near Newbury.

Sir Michael Stoute (Newmarket, Suffolk)

Background: born on October 22, 1945, in Barbados, where his father was chief of police, Michael Stoute came to Britain in 1965 to nurture his love of racing. Joined trainer Pat Rohan at Malton before moving to Newmarket three years later to work for Doug Smith and then Tom Jones. Took out a public licence to train in 1972, recording his first success that year when Sandal won at Newmarket on April 28. Trains at Freemason Lodge in Newmarket. Accolades: British champion trainer 10 times – 1981, 1986, 1989, 1994, 1997, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006 and 2009; knighted in 1998 for his services to sport and tourism in Barbados. British Classic Wins (15): Investec Oaks (1978 Fair Salinia, 1987 Unite), Investec Derby (1981 Shergar, 1986 Shahrastani, 2003 Kris Kin, 2004 North Light, 2010 Workforce), QIPCO 1000 Guineas (1989 Musical Bliss, 2003 Russian Rhythm), QIPCO 2000 Guineas (1985 Shadeed, 1988 Doyoun, 1997 Entrepreneur, 2000 King’s Best, 2001 Golan), Ladbrokes St Leger (2008 Conduit). Royal Ascot – 69 Royal Ascot wins (up to the start of the third day this year) and is the most successful current trainer at the five-day meeting. His major victories include:-Gold Cup (1978 Shangamuzo, 2013 Estimate), Prince Of Wales’s Stakes (1981 Hard Fought, 1991 Stagecraft), King’s Stand Stakes (1981 Marwell), Diamond Jubilee Stakes (1985 Dafayna), Coronation Stakes (1986 Sonic Lady, 1987 Milligram, 1998 Exclusive, 2003 Russian Rhythm), St James’s Palace Stakes (1989 Shaadi), Queen Anne Stakes (2000 Kalanisi, 2001 Medicean, 2002 No Excuse Needed) Other Major Wins Include: Irish 1,000 Guineas (1986 Sonic Lady), Irish 2,000 Guineas (1989 Shaadi), Irish Derby (1981 Shergar, 1983 Shareef Dancer, 1986 Shahrastani), Irish Oaks (1978 Fair Salinia, 1986 Colorspin, 1987 Unite, 1988 Melodist (dead-heat), 1995 Pure Grain, 2000 Petrushka), Breeders’ Cup Filly & Mare Turf (2003 Islington, 2013 Dank), Breeders’ Cup Turf (1996 Pilsudski, 2000 Kalanisi, 2008 & 2009 Conduit), Coral-Eclipse (1993 Opera House, 1994 Ezzoud, 1997 Pilsudski, 2001 Medicean, 2007 Notnowcato), Dubai World Cup (1997 Singspiel), Japan Cup (1996 Singspiel, 1997 Pilsudski), King George VI & Queen Elizabeth Stakes Sponsored By QIPCO (1981 Shergar, 1993 Opera House, 2002 Golan, 2009 Conduit, 2010 Harbinger), Prix de l’Arc de Triomphe (2010 Workforce). Wins in Britain (1984-2013): 96; 120; 76; 105; 100; 116; 78; 81; 69; 64; 109; 72; 73; 84; 79; 81; 91; 75; 104; 115; 87; 95; 107; 113; 88; 99; 73; 53; 69; 87

 Ryan Moore

Born: September 18, 1983. Background: From a family steeped in racing. His late grandfather Charlie was a trainer, dad Gary, a former jump jockey, is a trainer under both codes, while mum Jayne was an accomplished amateur rider, as was his aunt Candy Morris. Older brother Jamie is a successful jump jockey who has just had his best season, while his sister Hayley has also ridden winners as an amateur and his youngest brother, Joshua, has followed the others into a riding career. Moore’s career began over hurdles, when making a winning debut as an amateur on Mersey Beat at Towcester on May 15, 2000, but he soon concentrated on the Flat. First major success on the Flat came as a 5lb claimer when he captured the 2002 Cesarewitch at Newmarket on the Martin Pipe trained Miss Fara. Appointed first rider to Sir Michael Stoute in November, 2007. Accolades: champion apprentice in 2003 (59 winners); British champion jockey three times – 2006 (182 wins), 2008 (192), 2009 (178). Royal Ascot Wins 22 (up to the start of the third day this year): including Gold Cup (2013 Estimate) British Classic Wins (4): Investec Oaks (2010 Snow Fairy), Investec Derby (2010 Workforce, 2013 Ruler Of The World), QIPCO 1000 Guineas (2012 Homecoming Queen). Other Major Wins Include: Prix du Jockey-Club (2014 The Grey Gatsby), Irish 1,000 Guineas (2014 Marvellous), Japan Cup (2013 Gentildonna), Investec Coronation Cup (2009 Ask, 2011 St Nicholas Abbey), Irish Oaks (2010 Snow Fairy), Breeders’ Cup Juvenile Turf (2011 Wrote, 2012 George Vancouver), Breeders’ Cup Turf (2008 & 2009 Conduit, 2013 Magician), Breeders’ Cup Filly & Mare Turf (2013 Dank), Coral-Eclipse (2007 Notnowcato), King George VI and Queen Elizabeth Stakes (2009 Conduit), Prix de l’Arc de Triomphe (2010 Workforce). Number of Wins in Britain (2000-2013): 6; 0; 39; 59; 132; 120; 182; 128; 192; 178; 138; 101; 116; 194


Leading Light (IRE) – Gold Cup

 leading lightBreeding: b c Montjeu (IRE) – Dance Parade (USA) (Gone West (USA))

Breeder: Lynch-Bages Ltd

Born: March 6, 2010

Owners: Derrick Smith, Sue Magnier & Michael Tabor

Trainer: Aidan O’Brien IRE

Jockey: Joseph O’Brien

Form: 41-1110-1

*A revelation in cheek-pieces last season, winning on four of his five starts including the Ladbrokes St Leger over an extended mile and three quarters at Doncaster in September.

*Reappeared this season with a decisive three-length victory in the 14-furlong Group Three Vintage Crop Stakes at Navan on May 14, a race trainer Aidan O’Brien won three times with four-time Gold Cup hero Yeats.

*Proved his versatility in a pair of Group Three contests last season, taking out the mile and a quarter Gallinule Stakes and Queen’s Vase over two miles at Royal Ascot.

*Dam high-class performer for Paul Cole, annexing the 1996 Queen Mary Stakes and the following year’s Fred Darling Stakes.

Race Record: Starts: 8; Wins: 6; 2nd: -; 3rd: -; Win & Place Prize Money: £468,319

 Derrick Smith, Sue Magnier, & Michael Tabor

Sue Magnier – Background: Born October, 1953, daughter of legendary trainer Vincent O’Brien (who saddled six Derby winners). Husband John Magnier (born in County Cork on February 10, 1948) has changed the bloodstock world since teaming up with Robert Sangster and Vincent O’Brien to buy Coolmore in the 1970s. Purchased potential stallions as yearlings, early successes included Alleged, Be My Guest, El Gran Senor, Golden Fleece, Sadler’s Wells and Storm Bird. Magnier subsequently bought out partners and now owns Coolmore, its American and Australian offshoots, and the Ballydoyle training centre. Worth £556 million according to 2014 Sunday Times Rich List. Myriad other business interests include stakes in Barchester nursing homes, pub group Mitchells & Butlers, property, Ladbrokes, the Sandy Lane Hotel in Barbados and Global Radio. Formerly had stake in Manchester United. Homes in Ireland, Barbados and Switzerland. Racing interests: Sue Magnier has had a share in all of Aidan O’Brien’s best horses. Those to have carried the Magnier dark blue silks include the Investec Derby winners Galileo, Pour Moi and Ruler Of The World. Other flagbearers include King Of Kings, Hawk Wing, Giant’s Causeway, Imagine, George Washington, Duke Of Marmalade, Dylan Thomas, Henrythenavigator, Rip Van Winkle and four-time Ascot Gold Cup scorer Yeats. Michael Tabor – Background: Born October 28, 1941, in East London. Trained as hairdresser and built up Arthur Prince bookmaking chain before selling to Coral in 1995. Married to Doreen and has homes in Barbados and Monaco. Son Ashley founded Global Radio, Europe’s largest commercial radio group, with backing from his father. Michael Tabor’s fortune grew through currency dealing and his many business interests include ownership of Victor Chandler and shares in Ladbrokes. Valued at £600 million in 2014 Sunday Times Rich list. Racing interests: Joined forces with John Magnier after his Thunder Gulch won the Kentucky Derby and Belmont Stakes in 1995. Previously best known for owning jumpers such as Neville Callaghan-trained Royal Derbi. Best horses to carry his colours include Montjeu, High Chaparral (2002 Derby), Hurricane Run, Entrepreneur, Desert King, Johannesburg, Stravinsky, Starspangledbanner, Lillie Langtry, Peeping Fawn, Misty For Me and 2007 Belmont Stakes heroine Rags To Riches. Derrick SmithBackground: Former Ladbrokes trading director, now based in Barbados with wife Gay. Currency trading helped him to be worth £595 million in 2014 Sunday Times Rich List. Business interests include, with his racing partners, Barchester nursing homes, pub group Mitchells & Butlers and the Sandy Lane Hotel in Barbados. Racing interests: In 2004, joined Coolmore as an investor and his purple silks with white seams, purple and white striped sleeves and purple cap have become a common sight atop such horses as the 2012 Investec Derby winner Camelot and Investec Oaks heroine Was. Others to sport his silks include Irish Derby winner Treasure Beach, 2011 Breeders’ Cup Turf and triple Investec Coronation Cup victor St Nicholas Abbey, Ascot Gold Cup winner Fame And Glory, Simply Perfect, Astronomer Royal, St Leger hero Leading Light, Mastercraftsman and the 2010 Irish Derby and Irish Champion Stakes winner Cape Blanco as well as Australian import So You Think.Gay Smith has owned a number of jumpers including Holywell, a winner at the last two Cheltenham Festivals. Their son Paul owns Investec Derby second Kingston Hill.

Aidan O’Brien IRE (Ballydoyle, County Tipperary)

Born: County Wexford on October 16, 1969. One of six children of Stella and Denis O’Brien. Background: Won Irish jump amateur riders’ title in 1993/94. Worked for P J Finn, then spent three years with Jim Bolger before assisting now wife Annemarie and her father Joe Crowley. The O’Briens and Crowley have around 20 mares at Carriganog Stud in Co Kilkenny (breeding as Whisperview Trading) and have bred Rock Of Gibraltar, Kingsbarns, Beethoven, King Torus and Ishvana. The O’Briens’ son Joseph rode the 2012 & 2014 Investec Derby winners Camelot & Australia. Their other children are Sarah and Ana, who have ridden winners, and Donnacha. Training Record: One of Ireland’s most successful all-time trainers since taking out licence at Piltown in County Kilkenny in 1993. First winner was Wandering Thoughts at Tralee on June 7, 1993. Took over from the unrelated Vincent O’Brien at John Magnier’s Ballydoyle stables in County Tipperary in 1996. Accolades: Champion Irish jump trainer five times: 1993/94, 1994/95, 1995/96, 1996/7, 1997/98. Champion Irish Flat trainer 15 times: 1997 and from 1999 to 2013. Champion British Flat trainer four times: 2001, 2002, 2007 and 2008. British Classic wins (21): Investec Derby (2001 Galileo, 2002 High Chaparral, 2012 Camelot, 2013 Ruler Of The World & 2014 Australia), Investec Oaks (1998 Shahtoush, 2001 Imagine, 2006 Alexandrova, 2012 Was), QIPCO 1000 Guineas (2005 Virginia Waters, 2012 Homecoming Queen), QIPCO 2000 Guineas (1998 King Of Kings, 2002 Rock Of Gibraltar, 2005 Footstepsinthesand, 2006 George Washington, 2008 Henrythenavigator, 2012 Camelot), Ladbrokes St Leger (2001 Milan, 2003 Brian Boru, 2005 Scorpion, 2013 Leading Light). His 30 Irish Classic winners include Irish Derby (1997 Desert King, 2001 Galileo, 2002 High Chaparral, 2006 Dylan Thomas, 2007 Soldier Of Fortune, 2008 Frozen Fire, 2009 Fame And Glory, 2010 Cape Blanco, 2011 Treasure Beach, 2012 Camelot) Other Major Wins Include: King George VI & Queen Elizabeth Stakes (2001 Galileo, 2007 Dylan Thomas, 2008 Duke Of Marmalade), Prix de l’Arc de Triomphe (2007 Dylan Thomas), Breeders’ Cup Juvenile (2001 Johannesburg), Breeders’ Cup Turf (2002 and 2003 High Chaparral, 2011 St Nicholas Abbey). His 41 Royal Ascot winners include Yeats, who captured an unprecedented four Gold Cups (2006-09). Wins in Britain (2000-2013): 11; 20*; 10*; 6; 4; 20; 11; 18*; 20*; 12; 7; 16; 13; 13 *champion trainer for win and place prize money;

 Joseph O’Brien

Born: May 23, 1993. Background: Eldest of Aidan and Annemarie O’Brien’s four children. Educated at Rockwell College near Cashel. Accomplished Pony Club rider, winning a bronze medal at the European Pony Championships in 2009. One of the tallest Flat jockeys. Had first ride on May 24, 2009, and first winner on May 28 on Johann Zoffany (now named Muir), trained by his father, at Leopardstown. First Pattern success came on Beethoven (bred by his parents) in Group Three Desmond Stakes in August, 2010. First Classic win came on Roderic O’Connor in 2011 Irish 2,000 Guineas. Won his second Investec Derby on Australia earlier this month. Four Royal Ascot winners. Accolades: Joint champion apprentice in Ireland in 2010, champion jockey in Ireland 2012 & 2013 (with a record 126 winners). British Classic wins (4): Investec Derby (2012 Camelot & 2014 Australia), QIPCO 2000 Guineas (2012 Camelot); Ladbrokes St Leger (2013 Leading Light). Royal Ascot Wins (4): including Prince Of Wales’s Stakes (2012 So You Think), Queen Anne Stakes (2013 Declaration Of War) Other major wins: Investec Coronation Cup (2012 St Nicholas Abbey, 2013 St Nicholas Abbey), Irish Derby (2012 Camelot), Queen Elizabeth II Stakes (2012 Excelebration), Breeders’ Cup Turf (2011 St Nicholas Abbey), Irish 2,000 Guineas (2011 Roderic O’Connor, 2012 Power, 2013 Magician), Moyglare Stud Stakes (2011 Maybe), Tattersalls Gold Cup (2012 So You Think), Racing Post Trophy (2011 Camelot, 2012 Kingsbarns), Grand Prix de Paris (2012 Imperial Monarch), Dubai Sheema Classic (2013 St Nicholas Abbey), Juddmonte International (2013 Declaration Of War), Dewhurst Stakes (2013 War Command). Wins in Britain (2009-2013): 0; 1; 2; 14; 10.

 Brown Panther (GB) – Gold Cup

Breeding: 6 b h Shirocco (GER) – Treble Heights (IRE) (Unfuwain (USA))

Breeder: Owen Promotions Ltd

Born: March 3, 2008

Owner: Andrew Black & Owen Promotions Ltd                

Trainer: Tom Dascombe      

Form: (1)/(4)111522-417238/1158-11

 *Steps up to two and a half miles for the first time in the Gold Cup.

*Has looked as good as ever this year with two victories from as many starts, following up a comfortable success in the Group Three Ormonde Stakes at Chester on May 9 with a decisive win in the Group Three King Henry II Stakes over two miles at Sandown Park on May 29.

*Eighth in the Group One Emirates Melbourne Cup in November last year and posted a fine victory in the Group Two Goodwood Cup at Glorious Goodwood in August.

*Runner-up in the 2011 St Leger at Doncaster, having provided part-owner and breeder Michael Owen with a first Royal Ascot win in June of the same year when taking the King George V Handicap by six lengths.

Race Record: Starts: 20; Wins: 9; 2nd: 3; 3rd: 1; Win & Place Prize Money: £475,464

 Andrew Black

Born: May 13, 1963, London Background: co-founder of pioneering betting exchange Betfair. Grandson of Sir Cyril Black, who as Tory MP for Wimbledon ironically campaigned against gambling. After being kicked out of Exeter University, he nursed his terminally ill brother and then worked at B&Q, spent time as a golf caddy on the European tour before getting his first “proper job” at the age of 26. Worked briefly on the New York stock exchange before moving into software development including for the Ministry of Defence. It was during his time working on a secret project for GCHQ that Black, who was all the while a successful gambler, thought up Betfair. He met Ed Wray, the brother of a friend then working for J P Morgan, at a garden party and he became a partner, providing the business plan to accompany Black’s model. Betfair launched in 2000 and the company had revenues of £387 million in 2013, although Black has reduced his holding following the company’s floatation in October, 2010. Racing Interests: Became joint-owner of Manor House Stables in August, 2009 alongside Michael Owen, and Tom Dascombe is the trainer. Also owns the 330-acre stud, Chasemore Farm, in Surrey. Prior to his link-up with Owen, Black had horses in training with a variety of trainers including Peter Chapple-Hyam, who trained his Group Three winner Morana. Chapple-Hyam was also responsible for Winker Watson, who was part-owned by Black via the Comic Strip Heroes partnership and won the Norfolk Stakes at Royal Ascot in 2007. He part-owned and bred Ceiling Kitty who won the 2012 Queen Mary Stakes at Royal Ascot and has enjoyed plenty of success with Brown Panther.

 Michael Owen

Born: December 14, 1979, Chester Background: Former professional footballer for Liverpool, Real Madrid, Newcastle United, Manchester United, Stoke City and England. His father, Terry Owen, played professionally for Chester City. Began his professional career with Liverpool, making a goal-scoring first team debut on May 6, 1997 at age 17. Was the youngest player to represent England in the 20th Century, having made his debut against Chile on February 11, 1998 aged 18 years and 95 days. Scored his most famous goal a few months later against Argentina in 1998 World Cup and received the BBC Sports Personality of The Year Award that December. Won the Ballon d’Or (European Footballer of the Year) in 2001, the year that he helped Liverpool to successes in the UEFA Cup, FA Cup and League Cup. Owen scored 118 goals in 216 Premier League appearances for Liverpool before departing for Real Madrid at a cost of £8 million in 2004. Moved to Newcastle United for £16 million in 2005 but after an injury-plagued time on Tyneside, he switched to Manchester United on a free transfer at the start of the 2008/09 season and won the Premier League title and the League Cup with the Red Devils, scoring 17 goals in 52 appearances in his three seasons for the club. Joined Stoke for the 2012-2013 campaign, playing eight times for the Potters, and announced his retirement from football at the end of the season. Scored 40 goals in 89 appearances for England, putting him fourth on the all-time top goal scorers list. Married his childhood sweetheart Louise, whom he met at primary school, in June, 2005. Racing Interests: First high-profile runner was the dam of Black Panther, Treble Heights, who won the Listed Aphrodite Stakes in 2003 and was Group Two-placed. Owen bought Manor House Stables near Malpas, Cheshire, in March, 2007, and initially installed fellow footballer David Platt’s brother-in-law Nicky Vaughan as salaried trainer in 2007. That arrangement ended in July, 2009, when Tom Dascombe became the trainer at Manor House Stables. Brown Panther gave Owen a first Royal Ascot success when winning the King George V Handicap in 2011.

 Tom Dascombe

Born: Bristol on April 30, 1973 Background: Developed a passion for racing in the company of his father and grandfather, watching the sport on TV and accompanying them to the races at Bath, Chepstow, Cheltenham and Salisbury. Began riding ponies at age three and, by the time he was 15, had graduated to riding racehorses at Henry Candy’s yard during the summer holiday. Upon leaving school, went to Martin Pipe’s stable and established himself as a run of the mill jump jockey in his five years at Pond House before relocating to Lambourn as a freelance. After 10 years and 96 winners, Dascombe hung up his race riding boots and, as well as riding track work at Churchill Downs, spent three years as assistant trainer to Ralph Beckett before embarking upon a job breaking horses in Florida. Two years under the tutelage of master South African handler Mike de Kock, in England and Dubai, added further polish to Dascombe’s education. He took out his own licence to train at the end of 2005 and established ONEWAY Racing in Lambourn. His first runner was Principal Witness, runner-up in a Wolverhampton handicap on November 28 of that year, and the gelding gave the trainer his first victory when winning at Lingfield on January 4, 2006. Dascombe’s biggest successes as a trainer during his time in Lambourn came at the 2008 Newmarket July Festival when Classic Blade took the Group Two July Stakes and Firth Of Fifth landed the Group Three Superlative Stakes. In July, 2009, Dascombe replaced Nicky Vaughan as the trainer at Manor House Stables, as he entered into a partnership with the complex’s founder Michael Owen and investor Andrew Black. Has also trained horses for Wayne Rooney. He has made a good start to 2014. Royal Ascot Wins (3): Sandringham Handicap (2011 Rhythm Of Light) King George V Handicap (2011 Brown Panther), Queen Mary Stakes (2012 Ceiling Kitty). Wins in Britain (2006-13):10; 26; 42; 58; 36; 51; 79; 56.

Richard Kingscote

Born: July 19, 1986. Background: Builder’s son from near Weston-Super-Mare and first started riding at age of 12, working ponies on Brean Beach. Aged 16, he attended the British Racing School in Newmarket before joining Roger Charlton as an apprentice. First ride was on Famous Grouse at Epsom Downs on August 30, 2004. Spent winter of 2005/06 riding in Australia for Sydney trainer Ron Quinton and has been first rider for Tom Dascombe since the now Cheshire-based trainer started out in Lambourn in 2007. Away from racing, Lambourn-based Kingscote is a motorbike enthusiast and often celebrates a big winner with a new tattoo. Royal Ascot Wins (4): Sandringham Handicap (2011 Rhythm Of Light, 2013 Annecdote), King George V Handicap (2011 Brown Panther), Queen Mary Stakes (2012 Ceiling Kitty). Wins in Britain (2004-2013): 2; 31; 33; 44; 60; 69; 47; 64; 93; 65.